Born: November 11, 1933, Riga, Latvia
- Structure of the Second Half of the Genetic Code
- structural and functional organization;
- action mechanisms;
- construction and synthesis of artificial
- superantigens as inducers of autoimmune diseases.
- M Proteins (Streptococcus pyogenes):
- structural and functional organization;
- M proteins as inducers of autoimmune diseases.
- Exon/Intron Emergence Problem
- Programmed Cell Death:
- active site structures of proteins,
- apoptosis inducers; apoptosis inducers as
potential drugs for cancer treatment and
- autoimmunity (elimination of autoreactive T cell
- design and synthesis of apoptosis inducers.
Brief Description of Main Research:
My recent research work concentrates on protein
sequence analysis, based on the amino acid interaction code (the second half of the
genetic code) deciphered with the effort of our research group during the last years. This
is a distinct and independent code which determines the amino acid interactions. The
designed model of code structure has allowed to elaborate a new method of analysis of
protein structures, called CAACRA (comparative amino acid codon root analysis). This
method has been used to demonstrate covert internal symmetry of peptide chains, to confirm
protein emergence by multimerisation of peptide-coding gene segments (repeat units), and
to explain the formation of exon and intron structures. Also, the locations of
functionally active sites in several proteins have been determined. Particularly
perspective seems the application of CAACRA for comparative analysis of proteins to
determine their evolutionary relationship. Our current projects deal with the studies of
structural and functional organization of superantigens.
Languages: English, Latvian, Russian
- Riga Industrial Polytechnical School (Chemical
- University of Latvia (Faculty of Chemistry), 1958
- Dr. chem. (Candidate of Science in former USSR,
Ph.D. in a Western countries), Latvian State University, 1963
- Dr. habil. chem. (Doctor of Science in former
USSR), Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1973
- Professor of Bioorganic Chemistry, Institute of
Organic Synthesis, 1977
Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis -
- Engineer, Junior and Senior Researcher, 1958-1964
- Head of the Laboratory of Amino Acids and
- Director, 1976-1982
- Head of the Research Group of Molecular
Immunology, 1982 -
- Leading Researcher, 1996 -
Honours and Awards:
- Corresponding Member, Latvian
Academy of Sciences, 1975
- Full Member, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1982
- Latvian State Prize, 1976
- USSR State Prize, 1983
- The Latvian Academy of Sciences Gustavs Vanags
- The Latvian Academy of Sciences and Joint Stock
Company "Grindex" Prize, 2004
- The Latvian Academy of Sciences Presidium First
Award, 1972, 1975, 1977 and 1989
- State Emeritus Scientist, 2002
Professional Activities and Memberships:
- Member, Editorial Board for Proceedings of
Latvian Academy of Sciences
- Member of the European Peptide Society
Protein Chemistry, Biology and Genetics , University of Latvia and Riga
Technical University, 1973 -1976
- Chipens G., Ievina N., Liepina I., Kalvinsh I.
Autoscanning of codon root palindroms. - Latvian J. Chem., 2006, N4, pp. 263-
- Chipens G., Ievina N., Kalvinsh I. Exons and
introns of globin genes originated from repetitive nucleic acids. - Latvian J. Chem.,
2006, N3, pp. 256- 262.
- Chipens G. Symmetry and antisymmetry of the
genetic code: models of the sense/antisense and the codon root code (Review). - Latvian
J. Chem., 2006, N1, pp. 3 - 18.
- Chipens G. Heptades of M proteins reflect
evolution of structures and functions of peptide chain repeat units. - Latvian J.
Chem., 2005, N 2, pp. 201- 203.
- Chipens G., Ievina N. Water structure as a
potential factor determining the code of amino acid interactions. - Latvian J. Chem.,
2005, N 1, pp. 3-13.
- Chipens G., Ievina N. Basic language of the
protein world. - Latvian J. Chem., 2004, N 4, pp. 393-394.
- Chipens G., Ievina N. Exons and introns of gene
ancestor were formed from identical repeats: an example of collagen. - Latvian
J. Chem., 2004, N 3, pp. 297-298.
- Chipens G., Ievina N. Quasiantisymmetry of the
double helices of DNA and structure of the sense/antisense code-16. - Latvian J.
Chem., 2004, N 3, pp. 299-301.
- Chipens G., Ievina N. The code of amino acis
interaction. - Latvian J. Chem., 2004, N 2, pp. 111-122.
- Chipens G., Ievina N. A mirror symmetry of the
genetic code table. - Latvian J. Chem., 2004, N 2, pp. 177-178.
- Chipens G., Ievina N. Repeat units are the
basic elements of gene and protein structural organisation. -
Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect. B, 1999, vol. 53, N 1, pp. 54-55.
- Chipens G., Ievina N. Outlines of a
nucleotide-multiplication theory of exon and intron origin. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci.,
Sect. B, 1999, vol. 53, N 2, pp. 65-72.
- Chipens G., Ievina N., RudzishR., Mekshun E.,
Bobrova I. The molekular basis of sense/anti-sense peptide interaction. - In: Peptides,
1998 (Eds. Bajusz S., Hudecz F.),Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 1999, pp. 434-435.
- Bobrova I., Abissova N., Mishlakova N., Rozentals
G, Chipens G. Synthesis and biological activity of branched enkephalin analogues (1998). -
Eur. J.Med. Chem., vol. 33, N 4. pp. 255-266.
- Bobrova I., Chipens G., Leonaviciene L.,
Astrauskas V., Bradunaite R. The synthesis of enkephalin analogs as possible regulators of
inflammatory and autoimmune responses in rats with adjuvant arthritis (1998). - Proc.
24th European Peptide Symp. Peptides-1996, Sept 8-13, Edinburg, Scotland / Ed.
R.Ramage, R.Epton. - England: Mayflower Sci. Ltd), pp. 269-270.
- Chipens, G. (1996) The second half of the genetic
code. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect. B, vol. 50,N 4/5, pp. 151-172.
- Chipens, G., Ievina, N. (1994) Comparative amino
acid codon root analysis (CAACRA) of peptide chains. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect.
B, vol. 48, N 3, pp. 50-54.
- Chipens, G., Cilinskis, E. (1994) Emergence and
evolution of protein structures by multiplication of nucleic acid segments. - Proc.
Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect.B, vol. 48, N 3,pp. 55-60.
- Chipens, G., Cilinskis, E. (1994) Internal covert
symmetry of peptide chains reflects evolution of protein by gene segment multiplication. -
Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci,. Sect. B, vol. 48, N 7/8, pp. 97-106.
- Chipens, G. (1992) Folding of peptide chains is
stipulated by the code of amino acid codon roots during the formation of spatial
structures of protein molecules. - Bioorgan. Khim., vol. 18, pp. 757-765 (in
- Chipens, G. (1991) The hidden symmetry of the
genetic code and rules of amino acid interaction. - Bioorgan. Khim., vol. 17, pp.
1335-1346 (in Russian).
- Chipens, G., Rudzish, R. (1991) Interaction code
of polar and apolar amino acids: "ice-breaker" model. - Bioorgan. Khim., vol.
17, pp. 1445-1448 (In Russian).
- Chipens, G., Ievina, N., Rudzish, R. (1991) Code
of codon roots determinating inter- and intramolecular interaction of amino acids in
peptide chains. - Bioorgan. Khim., vol. 17, pp. 1582-1584 (in Russian).
- Chipens, G. (1988) New biologically active
fragments of immunoglobulins. - Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., vol. 2, pp. 167-206.
- Chipens, G., Vegner, R., Ievina, N., Rozenthal, G.
(1986) Polarines: a novel group of immunologically active peptides. - Immunol. Res., vol.
5, pp. 314-327.
- Chipens, G. (1983) Cyclic analogues of
bradykinins: potential significance. - Surv. Immunol. Res, vol. 2, pp. 102-108.
- Chipens, G., Mutulis, F., Galaktionov, S. (1980)
Recognition of peptide hormones and kinins: molecular aspects of the problem. - In:
Frontiers of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Biology (Ed. Ananchenko, S.), Oxford
and New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 99-103.
- Academican of Latvian Academy of Sciences
G.Chipens. Bibliography (compiled by G.Stale, Dz.Zake, I.Zaure), 1993, Riga:Latvian
Academic Library (In Latvian, English, Russian).
- G.Chipens (Head of Project). Molecular
Organisation of Cell Regulatory Proteins. Latvian Council
of Science (1994-1996).
- G.Chipens (Head of Project). Structural and
Functional Organization, Emergence and Evolution to Proteins. Latvian Council of
- Interaction between HLA Class II and Peptides:
Definition of Functionally Important Epitopes Implicated in Susceptibility to Chronic
Autoimmune Diseases (1995-1997). Cooperation in science and technology with Central and
Eastern European countries and with the new independent States of the former Soviet Union
(PECO 94). Coordinator M. Sanchez Perez (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de
Farmacia, Departamento de Microbiologia II).
- G.Chipens (Head of Project). System
Analysis of Origin and Evolution of Exons and Introns. Latvian Council of Science (2001-2003).
Last update 28.09.2007