Born: October 13, 1946, Riga, Latvia
- Cell Biology
- Cytology of Microorganisms
- Physiology of Microorganisms
- Molecular Biology of Microorganisms
- Biochemistry and Biophysics of Microorganisms
Main investigations are linked with the studies of extreme treatment
upon microorganisms and especially with the state of anhydrobiosis in yeasts. Summarising
the results received it could be said that these investigations gave a possibility just
not only to study this extremely interesting natural phenomenon of reversible delay of
metabolism but to reveal the main mechanisms of intracellular reactions under unfavourable
conditions of environment too. We proved that extreme dehydration influences all
intracellular structures. We revealed the main structural and functional changes of yeast
cell wall, plasma membrane, mitochondria, vacuoles, lysosomal apparatus and nuclei.
Experiments have shown that the main factors determining the cell resistance to
dehydration are the following: the level of intracellular nucleic acid stability, the cell
cycle stage, the possibility of maintenance by cells the molecular organisation of
intracellular membranes and ability of "switching on" by cells of the whole
complex of protective reactions at early stages of dehydration process. A whole number has
been demonstrated of earlier unknown self-protective reactions observed in eucaryotic
organisms under extreme environmental conditions (ability of the cells to limit
irreversibly damaged cytoplasm sites, to separate with the help of nucleolemma
chromatine-containing nucleus parts, chromatine condensing, etc.). We showed the
possibility of directed increase of cell resistance to dehydration by the way of special
osmotic treatment on yeast. It was established that the stabilisation of intracellular
membrane state was achieved in these conditions.
Languages: English, Latvian, Russian
- University of Latvia (Faculty of Biology) , 1969
- Dr. biol. (Candidate of Science in former USSR, Ph.D. in Western countries), Latvian
Academy of Sciences, 1974
- Dr. habil. biol. (Doctor of Science in former USSR), Institute of Microbiology, USSR
Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 1988
- Researcher, Institute of Microbiology, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1974-1978
- Senior Researcher, Institute of Microbiology, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1978-1987
- Leading Researcher, Institute of Microbiology, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1987-1990
- Vice-head of the Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology,
Latvian Academy of Sciences, (now re-named as Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology,
Latvian University), 1990-1995
- Head of the Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology,
Latvian University, Riga, 1995-
- Professor, Riga Technical University, 1991-
- Visiting Investigator, Department of General and Marine Microbiology, University of
Goteborg, Sweden, 1993-1994
- Visiting Investigator, Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of
California, Davis, USA, 1995
- Consultant of EUROLYSINE Joint Research Laboratory, Orsay, France, 1992-1993
- J.Soros Foundation Research Scholar, 1993
- Visiting Investigator, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Sciences, National
Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine, Nancy, France, 1997
Honours and Awards:
Professional Activities and Memberships:
- Editorial Board for Process Biochemistry, 1993-
- Member, International Commission on Yeasts of IUMS, 1992-
- Member, New York Academy of Sciences, 1996-
- Secretary General, 15th International Specialised Symposium on Yeasts Organizing
- Member, 18th International Specialised Symposium on Yeasts International Advisory
- Member, Latvian Council of Science Committee for Research Evaluation, 1991-1996
- FEMS Liaison Officer, Board of Microbiological Society of Latvia, 1996-
- Member, European Federation of Biotechnology, Section for Microbial Physiology
- Delegate from Latvia, Federation of European Microbiological Societies (FEMS)
- 15th International Specialised Symposium on Yeasts, Riga, Latvia (1991)
- International Symposium on Physiology, Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology of
Methylotrophic Yeasts, Lviv, Ukraine (1991)
- Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sience, Praha, Czech Republic (1991)
- EUROLYSINE, Orsay, France (1991)
- 9th International Symposium on Yeasts, Atlanta, USA (1992)
- International Workshop on Biotechnology, Joe-en-Josas, France (1992)
- Department of General and Marine Microbiology, University of Goteborg, Sweden (1993)
- Department of Applied Microbiology, University of Lund, Sweden (1993)
- Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia (1994)
- Department of General and Marine Microbiology, University of Goteborg, Sweden (1994)
- Royal Gist-brocades, Delft, The Netherlands (1994)
- Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, USA (1995)
- Symposium "Trehalose and Water Handling in Biological Systems", Brazilian
Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Meeting , Caxambu, Brazil (1995)
- International Workshop "Biobalt-96", Tallinn, Estonia (1996)
- 18th International Specialised Symposium on Yeasts, Bled, Slovenia (1997)
- Cultor, Helsinki, Finland (1998)
- International Symposium "Microbial Stress in Food", Quimper, France (1999)
- A.I.Rapoport. Rejection of areas of damaged cytoplasm by microorganisms in a state of
anabiosis. - Microbiology, 1973, vol .42, N 2, pp. 317-318.
- A.I.Rapoport, N.A.Kostrikina. Cytological investigation of an anabiosis state of yeast
organisms. - Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Biology, 1973, N 5,
pp. 770-773 (In Russian).
- A.I.Rapoport, V.I.Birjusova, M.N.Meissel. The structure of the yeast cell nucleus in an
anabiotic state. - Reports of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1973, vol. 213, N 3,
pp. 708-710 (In Russian).
- A.I.Rapoport, M.E.Beker. Increased intracellular activity of acid phosphatase on
desiccation of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Microbiology, 1978, vol. 47, N 1,
- V.I.Biryusova, A.I.Rapoport. Cryofractographic investigation of the structure of yeast
cells in an anabiotic state. - Microbiology, 1978, vol. 47, N 2, pp.245-251.
- M.J.Beker, B.E.Damberga, A.I.Rapoport. Anabiosis of Microorganisms, 1981, Riga:
Zinatne, 252 pp. (In Russian).
- A.I.Rapoport, N.A.Pomoshchnikova, M.V.Fateeva, T.N.Nikitina, M.N.Meissel. Nucleic acids
and resistance of yeast cells to dehydration. - Microbiology, 1981, vol. 50, N 2, pp.
- A.I.Rapoport, A.B.Markovskii, M.E.Beker. Increase in the permeability of intracellular
membranes on dehydration and rehydration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. - Microbiology,
1982, vol. 51, N 6, pp. 707-710.
- A.I.Rapoport, V.I.Biryuzova, M.E.Beker. Effect of dehydration on the surface structure
of the yeast cell wall. - Microbiology, 1983, vol. 52, N 2, pp. 204-207.
- A.I.Rapoport, M.E.Beker. Effect of sucrose and lactose on resistance of the yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae to dehydration.- Microbiology, 1983, vol .52, N 5, pp.
- A.T.Novichkova, A.I.Rapoport. State of the intracellular pool of free amino acids in
dehydrated yeast organisms. - Microbiology, 1984, vol. 53, N 1, pp. 1-4.
- M.J.Beker, J.E.Blumbergs, E.J.Ventina, A.I.Rapoport. Characteristics of cellular
membranes at rehydration of dehydrated yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Applied
Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1984, vol. 19, N 5, pp. 347- 352.
- E.J.Ventina, L.A.Saulite, A.I.Rapoport, M.E.Beker. Electron-microscopic study of yeasts
in a state of anabiosis and reactivated from this state. - Microbiology, 1984, vol. 53,
N 4, pp. 536-541.
- A.I.Rapoport, M.N.Meissel. Survival rates of yeast organisms after dehydration as
determined by fluorescence microscopy. - Microbiology, 1985, vol. 54, N 1, pp. 53-55.
- A.I.Rapoport, M.E.Beker. Changes in the surface charge of yeast cells during their
dehydration and rehydration.- Microbiology, 1985, vol. 54, N 3, pp. 362-365.
- M.J.Beker, A.I.Rapoport, P.B.Zikmanis, B.E.Damberga. Dehydration as yeast metabolism
regulating factor.- In: Environmental Regulation of Microbial Metabolism. (Ed. by
I.S.Kulayev, E.A.Daves, D.W.Tangest). London-San-Diego: Academic Press, 1985, pp. 105-111.
- V.A.Saulite, A.I.Rapoport, M.E.Beker. Lipid inclusions in cells and changes in them
during dehydration and reactivation of yeasts. - Microbiology, 1986, vol. 55, N 1,
- A.I.Rapoport, M.A.Dreimane, M.E.Beker. Influence of the dehydration process on
Endomycopsis fibuligera yeasts.- Microbiology, 1986, vol. 55, N 4, pp. 542-545.
- A.I.Rapoport, M.E.Beker. Ribonucleic acid degradation during dehydration of yeast
cells.- Microbiology, 1986, vol. 55, N 5, pp. 689-691.
- A.I.Rapoport, V.I.Biryusova, T.P.Svetlichnaya. Freeze-fracture study of changes in
vacuoles during dehydration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. - Microbiology, 1986,
vol. 55, N 6, pp. 835-839.
- V.N.Ivanov, A.I.Rapoport, A.A.Pindrus, L.A.Saulite, T.A.Shifruk. Phase specificity of
damage and repair of yeast cells during dehydration-rehydration and freeze-thawing.- Microbiology,
1987, vol. 57, N 2, pp. 274-279.
- M.J.Beker, A.I.Rapoport. Conservation of yeasts by dehydration.- In: Advances in
Biochemical Engineering / Biotechnology, 1987,. Berlin- Heidelberg- NewYork - London -
Paris - Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, vol. 35, pp. 127-171.
- O.M.Puzyrevskaya, M.G.Saubenova. Polyols and resistance of yeasts to dehydration. -
Microbiology, 1988, vol. 57, N 2, pp. 269-271.
- M.J.Beker, A.Jalinska, J.E.Blumbergs, I.K.Bekere, A.I.Rapoport, E.J.Ventina,
I.V.Polskaya, A.A.Timoshin. Characteristics of a flocculant mutant of Zymomonas mobilis
ZM4 on sucrose and molasses media. - Australian Journal of Biotechnology, 1988, vol. 2,
N 2, pp. 156-159.
- A.A.Timoshin, A.I.Rapoport, M.E.Beker. Effect of temperature on the state of lipids in
the external membrane of Zymomonas mobilis during growth. - Microbiology, 1989, vol.
58, N 4, pp. 458-460.
- V.V.Vysotskii, G.I.Lazareva, A.I.Rapoport. Visualisation of intercellular bonds
(cohesion) in some anaerobic microflora by means of scanning electron microscopy.- Microbiology,
1991,vol. 60, N 2, pp. 225-229.
- I.L.Krallish, Yu.E.Posmetnyi, G.M.Khroustalyova, B.B.Reitblat, A.I.Rapoport. Effect of
plant extracts on the metabolic activity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 39.- Microbiology,
1991, vol. 60, N 4, pp. 471-475.
- A.A.Timoshin, A.F.Danilevich, A.I.Rapoport. Effects of low-intensity helium-neon laser
irradiation on the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis. - Microbiology, 1991, vol. 60,
N 6, pp. 718-722.
- A.I.Rapoport, G.M.Khroustalyova, G.J.Camanis, M.J.Beker. Yeast anhydrobiosis:
permeability of the plasma membrane.- Microbiology, 1995, vol. 64, N 2, pp. 229-232.
- A.Rapoport, O.Muter. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium by yeasts. - Process
Biochemistry, 1995, vol. 30, N 2, pp. 145-149.
- A.I.Rapoport, G.M.Khroustalyova, E.N.Kuklina. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: activation
effect.- Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 1997, vol. 30, N 1, pp.
- I.Krallish, H.Jeppsson, A.Rapoport, B.Hahn-Hagerdal. The effect of polyols on viability
of xylose-assimilating yeasts during dehydration-rehydration. - Appl. Microbiol.
Biotechnol, 1997, vol. 47, pp. 447-451.
- M.Bekers, A.Vigants, J.Laukevics, M.Toma, A.rapoport, P.Zilmanis. The effect of
osmo-induced stress on product formation by Zymomonas mobilis on sucrose. -
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2000, vol. 55, n 1-3, pp.147-150.
- M.Bekers, E.Ventina, A.Karsakevich, I.Vina, A.Rapoport, D.Upite, E.Kaminska, R.Linde.
Attachment of yeast to the modified stainless steel wire spheres, growth of cells and
ethanol production.- Process Biochemistry , 2000, vol.35, N 5, pp. 523-530.
- M.Beker, A.Rapoport, U.Viesturs. Country Profile: Latvia. In: Biotechnology in
the Developing World and Countries in Economic Transition (ed. G.T.Tzotzos,
K.G.Skryabin), CABI Publishing, 2000, pp. 106-108.
- O.Muter, A.Patmalnieks, A.Rapoport. Interrelations of the yeast Candida utilis and
Cr(VI); metal reduction and its distribution in the cell and medium. - Process
Biochemistry , 2001, vol.36, N 10, pp. 963-970.
- G.M.Khroustalyova, L.Adler, A.I.Rapoport. Exponential growth phase cells of the
osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii are extremely resistant to dehydration stress.- Process
Biochemistry , 2001, vol.36, N 12, pp. 1163-1166.
- O.Muter, D.Millers, L.Grigorjeva, E.Ventina, A. Rapoport. Cr(VI) sorption by intact and
dehydrated Candida utilis cells: differences in mechanisms. -Process Biochemistry, 2001,
vol.37, N 5, pp. 505-511.
- O.Muter, I.Lubinya, D.Millers, L.Grigorjeva, E.Ventinya, A. Rapoport. Cr(VI) sorption by
intact and dehydrated Candida utilis cells in the presence of other metals. - Process
Biochemistry , 2002, vol.38, N 1, pp. 123-131.
- A.I.Rapoport, G.M.Khroustalyova, I.Guzhova. Anhydrobiosis of yeasts: cell
adaption to stress conditions. - 1st FEMS Congress of European Microbiologists.
Abstract Book, Elsevier, 2003, pp. 94-95.
- A.Rapopport. Conservation of yeasts by dehydration: intercellular protective reactions.
- In: European Culture Collections: Resources for Biology and Biotechnology. Proc.
Annual General Meeting of the Eur. Culture Collections' Organization, 2005, pp.
- A.I.Rapoport, G.M.Khroustalyova, L.M.Crowe, J.H.Crowe. Anhydrobiosis in yeast:
stabilization by exogenous sugars.- Yeast (in press).
- A.Rapoport, G.Khroustalyova, O. Muter. Influence of Dehydration Process UponYeast Cells
(Review).- International Journal of Food Microbiology (in press).
- A.Rapoport (Head of Project). General Mechanisms of Intracellular Reactions to Extreme
Treatments. Latvian Council of Science (1994-1996).
- A.Rapoport (Head of Project). Influence of Chromium (VI) on Yeasts. Latvian Council
of Science (1994-1996).
- A.Rapoport (Head of Project). General Mechanisms of the Reversible Delay (Anhydrobiosis)
of Yeast Metabolism. International Science Foundation (J.Soros Foundation, USA)
- 3 Grants from Swedish Institute for the joint investigations of Intracellular Protective
Reactions in Yeasts Cells (1993-1995).
- A.Rapoport (Head of Project). Molecular Mechanisms of Dehydration-Rehydration and
Osmotic Stress in Yeasts. Latvian Council of Science (1997-2000).
- A.Rapoport (Head of Project). General Mechanisms of Yeast Cell Reactions to Heavy
Metals. Latvian Council of Science (1997-2000).
- A.Rapoport (Head of Latvian Part of Project). Dehydration of Recombinant Microorganisms.
CNRS, France (1997-1998).
- A.Rapoport (Head of Project). Investigations of General Mechanisms of Microorganisms
Response upon Stress Treatments at Ultrastructural and Molecular Levels. Latvian
Council of Science (2001 - 2004).
- A.Rapoport (Head of Project). Investigations of Molecular Mechanisms of Yeasts
Resistance to Dehydration and of Applied Aspects of Anhydrobiosis of Microorganisms.
Latvian Council of Science (2005 - ).
In the International Evaluation of Latvian Science these investigations received the
highest appraisal in Latvian microbiology and biotechnology (published in: Latvian
Research. An International Evaluation. Forkskningsradene. The Danish Research Councils.
Copenhagen, December 1992, pp. 379, 380, 381).
Last update 24.08.2005